Spain is one of the countries where implants are most placed in the world. The problem is that implants are placed in patients who are not good candidates for this type of treatment. People who smoke, who maintain poor control of the bacterial plaque or have a previous untreated periodental disease, as well as decompensated diabetic patients are not good candidates. However, by controlling these situations, implant therapy can be very successful.
There are many points that patients are not informed about implants today and should be known. Having a dental implant requires the same care as a natural tooth. Therefore, prevention is essential when it comes to preventing infections that, in many cases, can endanger the success of the implant and reduce its useful life, as warned by the Spanish Society of Periodontics and Osseointegration (SEPA).
Generally, implants are made of pure titanium, although new materials are now appearing. It is a fixation that is introduced into the maxillary bones to exercise the function of an artificial root. They are created to replace missing teeth. "Dental prostheses are placed on these artificial roots. Depending on whether there are one or more missing teeth there will be one or more prostheses on these implants," explains in an interview with Europa Press Regina Izquierdo, periodontist and vocalist at SEPA.
As he says, about 95-98% of the implants are properly integrated into the bone after placement, so it is a "very successful treatment" and, after 15 years, more than 90% continue to work perfectly in the mouth, although It depends not only on the type of screw but also on the treatment of its surface.Nuevos modelos de implantes que se integran en el hueso
Dangers of not taking care of the implant
Failure to follow proper oral hygiene entails, in a high percentage of cases, the appearance of problems such as biological or mechanical complications (they are less common, such as fracture of the implant or the screw that holds the prosthesis).
"On the biological ones, when it is not taken care of, the gum or the mucosa that is around the implant becomes inflamed, swells, becomes red, bleeds, and if this infection is not treated it can end up affecting the bone surrounding the implant, way that could be lost and could endanger its survival, "warns the specialist.
On its useful life, Izquierdo indicates that today it is not possible to offer a general estimate for all patients of what will be the expected residence time for an implant in the mouth, although those that are currently placed have no known expiration date. .
As he recalls, hundreds of years ago wires, or screws of different materials were already placed inside the bone to try to restore lost teeth, although without success. The current implantology base was born 35 years ago and since then it has evolved a lot, explains the SEPA member.
In his opinion, the "most important" is not to forget that the permanence of the implant or its useful life in the mouth depends on:
1. Patient characteristics; physiological conditioning (the availability of bone to introduce the implant); the patient's health status, and if there is a presence of certain diseases such as diabetes; if that patient follows bad oral habits such as smoking. "If you smoke you have a greater number of complications, it decreases your survival and makes it more likely to appear an infection on the implant," he adds.
2. In order for the implant to have a long lifespan before placing it, it will be necessary to control the causes of dental loss. If these incidents are not resolved, it can be replayed. Therefore, it indicates that it is an indispensable condition to maintain impeccable oral health and eliminate any infectious process in the mouth.
3. "Something very important is that the useful life depends on the hygiene of the patient. There are prostheses that do not allow the patient to clean well around the implant and can end problems. Regarding the design of the testis, it must be sanitizable , easy to clean, "explains Regina Izquierdo.
In this regard, he emphasizes that, according to general data, between 28 and 56% of patients with implants will suffer from peri-implantitis in the future, he says. "All experts insist that care must be taken and proper and regular maintenance of oral hygiene to prevent these diseases. When you talk about hygiene you always talk about cleanliness, but a good health measure is to stop smoking. It is a priority ", he emphasizes, while listing a series of tips:Dejar de fumar es esencial
1. Stop smoking.
2. Continue cleaning our mouth as with our teeth, brushing after each main meal, three times a day, for two minutes. It is also essential to use an interdental cleaning method between implants, such as dental floss or interdental brushes, for example. "In complex rehabilitations or for example elderly patients with little manual ability rely on electric brushes or irrigators that help clean under implant prostheses. Also consider disinfectant mouthwashes, but always under the dentist's prescription. Not all rinses are same and there are different compositions and efficiencies, "he adds.
3. Do not forget the periodic check-ups at the dentist, so that you can clean those hidden areas that the patient does not reach, as well as to control the health of the peri-implant tissues.
"The SEPA notes that implant treatment is a very effective option that should be considered only in those cases where it is not possible to maintain a natural tooth. It is not a benefit for the patient, as it can sometimes appear, the extraction of natural teeth indiscriminately and replacing them with implants with the idea of avoiding periodental treatment or to replace revisions, because implants also suffer from these problems and require revisions, "he says.